- Fiscal policy is one of 3 main economic policies that governments use to influence economic activity. the fiscal policy covers the taxation and spending decisions of a government. their aim is to influence AD( aggregate demand).
Progressive tax: a tax that takes a higher percentage from the income of the rich.
Regressive tax( VAT): a tax that takes a greater percentage from the income of the poor. These are 2 types of taxes that is the most important tax revenue in the UK.
Government spending can be divided into:
- Capital expenditure, which is hospitals, schools, roads, etc...
- Current spending, which is public services, medicines, teaching's pay, etc...
- Transfer payments, which is money transferred from the taxpayers.
- Debt interest payment,which is payment made to the holders of government debt.
Monetary policy: central bank and/or government decisions on the rate of interest, the money supply and the exchange rate.
- The monetary policy and the fiscal policy are both seek to influence AD
- if the Monetary policy and the Fiscal policy seek to influence AD, supply-side policy aim to influence AS.
- Fiscal policy and Monetary policy can be reduced the unemployment by cutting taxes and increase the government spending, it leeds to the AD increase, then more jobs are created.
- The Supply-side policy can be implemented to increase economic incentives and the quality of labour services offered by the unemployed.
- Cost push inflation: increases in the price level caused by increases in AD
- demand full inflation: Increases in the price level caused by increases in the cost of production.
- Cost push inflation: if the government believes that inflation caused by increase in wages rate, they'll try to restict the wage rise, they can also try to lower firms' cost by reducing corporation tax.
- Demand pull inflation: to reduce demand pull inflation, a government could, for instance, raise income tax, it make the people ability to spend.
- in short run: the government could use the Fiscal policy and Monetary policy to increase the AD.
- in long run: the government try to increase in country's output which is using the supply side policy to increase the AS.
- in short run: there are 3 main ways:
- exchange rate adjustment
- deflationary demand management
- import restrictions
- in long run: implement supply side policy, the government may give subsidies to infant industries in the belief that they have the potentail to grow and become internationally competitive.